Clinical Psychology Concentration

Catalog Year: 2024-2025

Banner Code: LA-PHD-PSYC-CLN

The PhD in Psychology provides knowledge of the basic content areas in psychology and practical experience in applying this knowledge to solve human problems in relationships, work, and education. Core course requirements cover subject matter identified by the profession as essential to doctoral training. This includes biological, social, cognitive, and individual bases of behavior, as well as the history of psychology. The program offers the following concentrations: applied developmental psychology, clinical psychology, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience, human factors/applied cognition, and industrial/organizational psychology.

The University Catalog is the authoritative source for information on program requirements and courses. The Schedule of Classes is the authoritative source for information on classes scheduled for this semester. See the Schedule for the most up-to-date information and see Patriot web to register for classes. Requirements may be different for earlier catalog years. See the University Catalog archives.

Degree Requirements

Total credits: 72-79

Students should be aware of the specific policies associated with this program, located on the Admissions & Policies tab.

In addition to satisfying the requirements for all doctoral degrees, students must successfully complete 72–79 credits of required coursework chosen in one of five concentrations. Each concentration consists of four educational components: core courses, upper-level specialty courses, supervised practica, and dissertation.

  • Concentration in Applied Developmental Psychology (APD)
  • Concentration in Clinical Psychology (CLN)
  • Concentration in Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience (CBNR)
  • Concentration in Human Factors/Applied Cognition (HF)
  • Concentration in Industrial/Organizational Psychology (IO)

Concentration in Applied Developmental Psychology (APD)

Overview

The applied developmental psychology concentration is concerned with enhancing developmental processes and preventing developmental disorders in individuals and families across the life span. It uses the knowledge base and methodologies of developmental science to assist the development of individuals who vary in cultural and ethnic backgrounds; economic and social opportunities; physical, social, emotional, and cognitive abilities; and conditions of living (e.g., families, neighborhoods, communities, and physical settings). The program's emphasis is on child development (infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence), and students may focus their studies on the cognitive, social, emotional, language, personality, or physiological aspects of development.

The applied developmental concentration has two goals: to train students to teach and do research on basic and applied issues in child development for employment in such settings as universities, research institutes, and organizations, and to train students to do applied work in developmental psychology (consultation, program evaluation, assessment and evaluation, developmental interventions, and parent training) in such settings as schools, hospitals, courts, child care facilities, and other organizations. 

Students pursuing this concentration must complete 72 credits comprised of doctoral coursework and at least 12 credits of dissertation research.

Doctoral Coursework

Developmental Core

PSYC 704 Life-Span Development 3
Total Credits 3

Psychology Core

Select one course from the following: 3
Cognitive Bases of Behavior
Biological Bases of Human Behavior
Social Bases of Behavior
Emotional Bases of Behavior
Total Credits 3

Quantitative and Specialized Methods

PSYC 642 General Linear Modeling I 4
PSYC 643 General Linear Modeling II 4
Additional courses 9
Choose at least two from the following:
Neuroimaging
Psychometric Methods
Longitudinal Data Analysis
Doing Social Network Research in Psychological Science
Quantitative Methods IV: Multivariate Techniques in Psychology
Advanced Topics in Statistical Analysis (with approval)
Structural Equation Modeling and Meta-Analysis
Special Topics (with approval)
Special Topics in Psychology (with approval)
Additional course can be taken from the following:
Program Evaluation
Qualitative Methods in Educational Research
Mixed Methods Research: Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
Item Response Theory
Hierarchical Linear Modeling
Special Topics (when topic is Matlab for Psychologists)
Seminar in Human Factors and Applied Cognition (when topic is Python for Psychology)
Applied Statistics and Visualization for Analytics
Total Credits 17

Developmental Specialized Content

Choose four courses from the following: 12
Social and Emotional Development
Cognitive and Perceptual Development
Language Development
Developmental Psychopathology
Applied Developmental Psychology
Advanced Learning, Motivation, and Self-Regulation
Special Topics 1
Special Topics in Psychology
Total Credits 12
1

When topic is Adolescent Development; Autism Spectrum Disorders; Child Development and Social Policy; Executive Functions Development; or developmental in content, with approval.

Professional Seminar/Professional Ethics

Students take 1 credit in fall and 1 credit in spring of their first year and 1 additional credit at any other time (preferably in their second year). 

PSYC 890 Seminar in Professional Psychology (3 credits) 1-3
Total Credits 3

Directed Reading and Research or Practicum

Students may fulfill this requirement with 8 credits of PSYC 897 Directed Reading and Research or a combination of PSYC 897 Directed Reading and Research and PSYC 792 Psychology Practicum.

Select 8 credits from the following: 8
Directed Reading and Research (can be repeated for credit)
Psychology Practicum (A maximum of 6 credits may be applied to this requirement.)
Teaching Practicum in Psychology
Total Credits 8

Elective Courses

Select 14 credits in consultation with your advisor to complete 72 total required for the degree. 14

Students complete the 72 credits required for the degree with additional coursework from within or outside the department, excluding PSYC 798 Thesis Proposal and PSYC 799 Master's Thesis, with prior approval of the advisor.

Advancement to Candidacy

To advance to candidacy, students must complete all courses required by the program. Students must also successfully complete and pass written and oral comprehensive exams.

Dissertation Research

The dissertation requirement is designed to demonstrate the student's ability to apply psychological principles to research problems. Once enrolled in PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation, students must follow the university's continuous registration policy as specified in AP.6.10.6 Dissertation Research. Students who defend in the summer must be registered for at least 1 credit of PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation.

Students complete a minimum of 3 credits of PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal and 3 credits of PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation. They must apply a minimum of 12 dissertation credits (PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal and PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation combined) to the degree. Because of the continuous registration policy, students may be required to register for additional credits of these courses.

Select 12 credits from the following: 12
Doctoral Dissertation Proposal
Doctoral Dissertation
Total Credits 12

Concentration in Clinical Psychology (CLN)

Overview

The clinical psychology concentration is committed to the clinical science model. Our goal is to train clinical psychologists who are capable of integrating research and applied clinical activities. The program is unique in approaching clinical psychology from social psychological and contextual perspectives. A social psychological approach uses theory and research from social psychology to understand emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal functioning. A contextual perspective stresses the impact of social and cultural factors on the individual and vice versa. Most of the faculty members employ cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal approaches to research and clinical practice, but students also receive exposure to humanistic, existential, and psychodynamic perspectives.

Students pursuing this concentration must complete 79 graduate credits comprised of doctoral coursework and at least 12 credits of dissertation research.

 Anticipated Plan of Study

This is a typical schedule. Course credit overloads are required for this program in Year 1, in the Fall (15 credits) and Spring (14 credits) semesters. Consult with your advisor to resolve any concerns or formulate individual schedules. In particular, discuss the timing of dissertation proposal and defense, coverage of tuition in fourth year and beyond, and other factors. To review the complete degree requirements for the Clinical Psychology concentration, please see the "Doctoral Coursework" tab below.

Year One (29 credits)

Fall (15 credits)
PSYC 810 Psychological Assessment I 4
PSYC 822 Scientific Foundations of Clinical Psychology I 3
PSYC 856 Diversity, History and Clinical Psychology 3
PSYC 642 General Linear Modeling I 4
PSYC 890 Seminar in Professional Psychology 1-3
Spring (14 credits)
PSYC 811 Psychological Assessment II 4
PSYC 864 Foundations of Evidence-Based Psychotherapy 3
PSYC 644 Methods for Social Research 3
PSYC 643 General Linear Modeling II 4

Year Two (20-21 credits)

Fall (10-11 credits)
PSYC 861 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth 3
PSYC 862 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults 3
PSYC 646 Longitudinal Data Analysis 3
PSYC 792 Psychology Practicum 1-6
PSYC 850 Teaching Practicum in Psychology (for those teaching a course) 2
Spring (10 credits)
PSYC 861 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth 3
PSYC 862 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults 3
PSYC 792 Psychology Practicum 1-6
PSYC 883 Ethical and Professional Issues in Clinical Practice 3

Year Three (15 credits)

Fall (9 credits)
PSYC 881 Practicum in Clinical Psychology 3
PSYC 704 Life-Span Development 3
PSYC 855 Social, Cognitive, and Affective Foundations of Behavior (even years) 3
OR Advanced Stats/Elective (odd years)
Spring (6 credits)
PSYC 881 Practicum in Clinical Psychology 3
PSYC 702 Biological Bases of Human Behavior (even years) 3
OR Advanced Stats/Elective (odd years)

Year Four (12 credits)

Fall (6 credits)
PSYC 813 Supervision, Consultation, and Interprofessional Skills 3
PSYC 855 Social, Cognitive, and Affective Foundations of Behavior (even years) 3
PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal (odd years) 3
PSYC 885 Clinical Externship 0
Spring (6 credits)
PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal 3 or 6
PSYC 702 Biological Bases of Human Behavior (even years) 3
PSYC 885 Clinical Externship 0

Year Five (7 credits)

Fall (6 credits)
PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation 6
PSYC 885 Clinical Externship 0
Spring (1 credit)
PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation 1
PSYC 885 Clinical Externship 0

*Approved Dissertation proposal is due by October 1, prior to submitting any applications for internships that start the following year. Students should not register for the match without an approved dissertation proposal.

Year Six - Internship*/ Dissertation Credits
Registration in PSYC 999 (1 credit) or Internship each term until final defense of dissertation is required.

Doctoral Coursework

Course credit overloads are required for this program in Year 1, in the Fall (15 credits) and Spring (14 credits) semesters.

Biological Bases of Behavior

Select one course from the following: 3
Mammalian Neurobiology
Biological Bases of Human Behavior
Total Credits 3

Developmental Bases of Behavior

PSYC 704 Life-Span Development 3
Total Credits 3

Design and Data Analysis Emphasis

Select one of the following three emphases (A, B, or C):
Basic Emphasis A
PSYC 642 General Linear Modeling I 4
PSYC 643 General Linear Modeling II 4
PSYC 644 Methods for Social Research 3
Total Credits 11
Enhanced Quantitative Emphasis B
PSYC 642 General Linear Modeling I 4
PSYC 643 General Linear Modeling II 4
PSYC 644 Methods for Social Research 3
Select one additional approved quantitative course, such as those in the list shown under Quantitative Emphasis C 3
Total Credits 14
Quantitative Emphasis C
PSYC 642 General Linear Modeling I 4
PSYC 643 General Linear Modeling II 4
PSYC 644 Methods for Social Research 3
Select two additional approved quantitative courses, such as: 6
Psychometric Methods
Longitudinal Data Analysis
Quantitative Methods IV: Multivariate Techniques in Psychology
Advanced Topics in Statistical Analysis (varies by semester but includes Bayesian methods)
Special Topics in Psychology (Credits: 3 that include Meta-analysis/SEM)
Structural Equation Modeling and Meta-Analysis
Qualitative Methods in Educational Research
Total Credits 17

Required Courses

PSYC 810 Psychological Assessment I 4
PSYC 811 Psychological Assessment II 4
PSYC 813 Supervision, Consultation, and Interprofessional Skills 3
PSYC 822 Scientific Foundations of Clinical Psychology I 3
PSYC 861 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Youth 1 6
PSYC 862 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults 1 6
PSYC 864 Foundations of Evidence-Based Psychotherapy 3
PSYC 881 Practicum in Clinical Psychology 2 6
PSYC 883 Ethical and Professional Issues in Clinical Practice 3
PSYC 855 Social, Cognitive, and Affective Foundations of Behavior 3
PSYC 856 Diversity, History and Clinical Psychology 3
PSYC 890 Seminar in Professional Psychology 1
PSYC 792 Psychology Practicum 2
Total Credits 47
1

Students take 3 credits in fall and 3 credits in spring of the second year.

2

Students take 3 credits in fall and 3 credits in spring of the third year.

Electives

The choice of quantitative emphasis affects the number of credits available for electives. Those who choose Emphasis A take 3 credit hours of electives; students choosing Emphasis B or Emphasis C take 0 hours of electives. PSYC 850 Teaching Practicum in Psychology is recommended for anyone considering academia.

Select 0-3 electives with the approval of the advisor. 0-3
Total Credits 0-3

Advancement to Candidacy

To advance to candidacy, students must complete all core courses required by the program. Students must also successfully complete and pass written and oral comprehensive exams.

Dissertation Research

The dissertation requirement is designed to demonstrate the student's ability to apply psychological principles to research problems. Once enrolled in PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation, students must follow the university's continuous registration policy as specified in AP.6.10.6 Dissertation Research. Students who defend in the summer must be registered for at least 1 credit of PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation.

Students complete a minimum of 3 credits of PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal and 3 credits of PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation. They must apply a minimum of 12 dissertation credits (PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal and PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation combined) to the degree. Because of the continuous registration policy, students may be required to register for additional credits of these courses.

Select 12 credits from the following: 12
Doctoral Dissertation Proposal
Doctoral Dissertation
Total Credits 12

Internship

Students complete a full-time, 12-month clinical psychology internship at a site accredited by the American Psychological Association.

Externship (optional, but recommended)

Students complete a part-time clinical psychology externship in the fourth and/or fifth year of the program.

Concentration in Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience (CBNR)

Overview

This cognitive and behavioral neuroscience concentration focuses on studying biological substrates of behavior. Core and affiliated faculty study areas as diverse as neural control of behavioral development; animal models of learning and memory and their disorders (such as Alzheimer's); human brain systems involved in cognition, perception, human error, decision making, and movement; the relation of neural activity to human performance; and cognitive aging. A focus of the program is on translational neuroscience-complementary study of neural systems in humans and animals, including application of animal research to human behavior.

The program’s core facilities have well-equipped behavioral testing and histological/histochemical facilities. The program’s strong links to the Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study and the Center for Biomedical Genomics and Informatics allows opportunities for collaborative work as diverse as tissue slice preparations and molecular genetics. The doctoral program prepares students for research-based careers in academics, government, or industry.

Students pursuing this concentration must complete 72 graduate credits comprised of coursework and at least 12 credits of dissertation research.

Doctoral Coursework

Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience Core

PSYC 531 Mammalian Neurobiology 3
or NEUR 603 Mammalian Neuroanatomy
PSYC 555 Neuroimaging 3
PSYC 559 Behavioral Chemistry 3
PSYC 558 Neuronal Bases of Learning and Memory 3
or PSYC 685 Cognitive Neuroscience
Total Credits 12

Quantitative and Research Methods 

Two required Courses
PSYC 642 General Linear Modeling I 4
PSYC 643 General Linear Modeling II 4
Elective Statistics and Methods 6
Students will choose from research methods and statistics courses in consultation with their advisor. May include but not limited to PSYC 563.
Laboratory Methods in Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience
Total Credits 14

Teaching Practicum

PSYC 850 Teaching Practicum in Psychology 2
Total Credits 2

Research Credits

The research credit requirement can be met through completion of a master's thesis (recommended) or other research course as approved by the program.

Select 6 credits in either a master's thesis or other research course 1 6
Total Credits 6

Elective Credits

Students can complete the 72 credit requirement through credits of additional coursework, within or outside the department, with prior approval of the advisor. 

Some options for fulfilling this requirement:

NEUR 602 Cellular Neuroscience
NEUR 689 Topics in Neuroscience
BIOL 585 Eukaryotic Cell Biology Laboratory
BIOS 740 Laboratory Methods in Functional Genomics and Biotechnology

Advancement to Candidacy

To advance to candidacy, students must complete all core courses required by the program. Students must also successfully complete and pass written and oral comprehensive exams.

Dissertation Research

The dissertation requirement is designed to demonstrate the student's ability to apply psychological principles to research problems. Once enrolled in PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation, students must follow the university's continuous registration policy as specified in AP.6.10.6 Dissertation Research. Students who defend in the summer must be registered for at least 1 credit of PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation.

Students apply to this degree a minimum of 3 credits of PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal and 3 credits of PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation; they may apply a minimum 12 and a maximum of 24 dissertation credits (PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal and PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation combined) to the degree. Because of the continuous registration policy, students may be required to register for additional credits of these courses.

Select 12-24 credits from the following: 12-24
Doctoral Dissertation Proposal
Doctoral Dissertation
Total Credits 12-24

Concentration in Human Factors/Applied Cognition (HF)

Overview

The human factors and applied cognition concentration covers basic theoretical and empirical issues and emphasizes research that applies cognitive science to real-world problems. The program builds bridges between human factors engineering and cognitive psychology. Many applications of cognitive science are in the domain of human factors, and many doctoral students who complete our program go on to be human factors professionals.

Students pursuing this concentration must complete 72 graduate credits comprised of coursework and at least 12 credits of dissertation research.

Doctoral Coursework

Cognitive Core

PSYC 737 Psychology of Human-Technology Interaction 3
Total Credits 3

Quantitative and Research Methods

PSYC 642 General Linear Modeling I 4
PSYC 643 General Linear Modeling II 4
Total Credits 8

Advanced Statistics or Qualitative Methods

Select three courses from the following: 9
Nonparametric Statistics and Categorical Data Analysis
Psychometric Methods
Longitudinal Data Analysis
Quantitative Methods IV: Multivariate Techniques in Psychology
Advanced Topics in Statistical Analysis
Structural Equation Modeling and Meta-Analysis
Qualitative Research Methods
Total Credits 9

Specialized Content

PSYC 530 Cognitive Engineering: Cognitive Science Applied to Human Factors 3
PSYC 645 Research Methods in Human Factors and Applied Cognition 3
Select five courses from the following: 1 15
Seminar in Human Factors and Applied Cognition
Topics may include: Python for Psychologists, Eye Tracking, Usability & Product Design, Other topics introduced by the program
Advanced Topics in Cognitive Science
Topics may include Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention, Individual Differences in Cognition and Performance, Ergonomics, Human-Systems Interaction, Affect and Performance, Technology, Stress, and Work, Other topics introduced by the program
Total Credits 21
1

These are seminars with variable topics that may be repeated for credit when the topic is different.

Special Topics in Professional Issues

PSYC 890 Seminar in Professional Psychology 1-3
Total Credits 3

Directed Reading and Research

Students are encouraged to take a minimum of 1 credit of this course each semester until they advance to candidacy.

PSYC 897 Directed Reading and Research 1-3
Total Credits 1-3

Elective Courses

Students have several options for completing the remaining 72 credits required for the degree. They may take additional content courses with permission of their advisor. Students who do not have work experience in applied cognition or human factors are encouraged to take up to 6 credits of practicum.

Students are strongly encouraged to develop competence in programming and computer science through coursework or independent study. Students are also encouraged to identify and take relevant courses within or outside the department with permission of their advisor.

Some options for fulfilling this requirement:

PSYC 734 Seminar in Human Factors and Applied Cognition 3
PSYC 768 Advanced Topics in Cognitive Science 3
PSYC 730 Practicum in Applied Psychology 1-6
or PSYC 592 Special Topics
or PSYC 892 Special Topics in Psychology

Advancement to Candidacy

To advance to candidacy, students must complete all core courses required by the program. Students must also successfully complete and pass written comprehensive exams.

Dissertation Research

The dissertation requirement is designed to demonstrate the student's ability to apply psychological principles to research problems. Once enrolled in PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation, students must follow the university's continuous registration policy as specified in AP.6.10.6 Dissertation Research. Students who defend in the summer must be registered for at least 1 credit of PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation.

Students complete a minimum of 3 credits of PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal and 3 credits of PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation. They must apply a minimum of 12 dissertation credits (PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal and PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation combined) to the degree. Because of the continuous registration policy, students may be required to register for additional credits of these courses.

Select 12 credits from the following: 12
Doctoral Dissertation Proposal
Doctoral Dissertation
Total Credits 12

Concentration in Industrial/Organizational Psychology (IO)

Overview

The industrial/organizational psychology concentration focuses on multiple aspects of behavior in organizational settings, including personnel selection, quantitative analysis, teams, leadership, work and family issues, and organizational health issues. Mason’s graduate work in this area emphasizes research as the key to knowledge in both academic and applied settings. The program fosters a peer-oriented environment whereby students collaborate on numerous projects in addition to working with faculty members, in many different areas of industrial/organizational psychology.

Students pursuing this concentration must complete 72 graduate credits comprised of coursework and at least 12 credits of dissertation research.

Doctoral Coursework

Core Course

PSYC 703 Social Bases of Behavior 3
PSYC 668 Personality: Theoretical and Empirical Approaches 3
Total Credits 6

Required Courses in Statistics

PSYC 557 Psychometric Methods 3
PSYC 633 Evaluative Research in Psychology 3
PSYC 642 General Linear Modeling I 4
PSYC 643 General Linear Modeling II 4
Select two additional specialized statistics courses from the following: 6
Longitudinal Data Analysis
Quantitative Methods IV: Multivariate Techniques in Psychology
Structural Equation Modeling and Meta-Analysis
Special Topics in Psychology (when topic is Specialized Statics)
Total Credits 20

Survey of Content

PSYC 636 Survey of Industrial-Organizational Psychology 3
Total Credits 3

Specialized Content 

Students taking 18 credits of specialized content may take an additional 3 credits of PSYC 897 Directed Reading and Research.

Select six to seven courses of specialized content from the following: 18-21
Organizational Change and Development
Industrial and Personnel Testing and Evaluation
Training: Psychological Contributions to Theory, Design, and Evaluation
Behavior in Small Groups and Teams
Issues in Personnel Psychology
IO Psychology and Legal Issues in Employment Discrimination
Seminar in Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Psychology of Work Motivation
Careers
Behavior and Performance at Work
Special Topics in Psychology
Other graduate courses with permission of I/O faculty and psychology department.
Total Credits 18-21

Professional Development 

Required:
PSYC 890 Seminar in Professional Psychology 3
PSYC 892 Special Topics in Psychology 1 6
Total Credits 9
1

When topic is IO Learning Series.

Electives (1-4 credits)

Students complete the remaining credits required for this degree through additional coursework, within or outside the department in a content area, professional development, teaching practicum, or dissertation, with prior approval of the advisor.

Advancement to Candidacy

To advance to candidacy, students must complete all core courses required by the program. Students must also successfully complete and pass written and oral comprehensive exams.

Dissertation Research

The dissertation requirement is designed to demonstrate the student's ability to apply psychological principles to research problems. Once enrolled in PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation, students must follow the university's continuous registration policy as specified in AP.6.10.6 Dissertation Research. Students who defend in the summer must be registered for at least 1 credit of PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation.

Students complete a minimum of 3 credits of PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal and 3 credits of PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation. They must apply a minimum of 12 dissertation credits (PSYC 998 Doctoral Dissertation Proposal and PSYC 999 Doctoral Dissertation combined) to the degree. Because of the continuous registration policy, students may be required to register for additional credits of these courses.

Select 12 credits from the following: 12
Doctoral Dissertation Proposal
Doctoral Dissertation
Total Credits 12

Licensure Disclosure

This program has been identified by George Mason University as one that may lead to a career requiring professional licensure/certification. Federal regulations require Mason to disclose information as to whether this program meets/does not meet the educational requirements for licensure/certification in your state, or whether such a determination has not been made. Please consult our Licensure Disclosure Tool (https://provost.gmu.edu/licensure) for the disclosure statement specific to your desired state/program combination.