Candice T. Stanfield-Wiswell

Candice T. Stanfield-Wiswell

Candice T. Stanfield-Wiswell

Graduate Teaching Assistant

Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience: Time Perception, Numerosity, Attention, Memory, Psychophysics

Candice is a Ph.D. Candidate in the Cognitive & Behavioral Neuroscience program within the Psychology Department at George Mason University and conducts research in Dr. Martin Wiener’s spatial, temporal, action, representation (STAR) lab. Her research interests include elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in human time and space perception, and their interactions with other cognitive processes, such as numerosity, attention, and memory. In the lab, she uses a variety of cognitive neuroscience tools: eye tracking, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), electroencephalography (EEG), functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), and psychophysics. Different techniques are often used to enhance their power, i.e., simultaneous fMRI-EEG or TMS-EEG.

Simply put, Candice studies how looking at different numbers of things changes the way our brains experience and use time.

  1. We know that looking at different numbers (or quantities) of items alters the way we experience time.

  2. However, there is still a lot we do not know about how observing these numerosities influences our ability to time events and make time-related decisions.

  3. Therefore, Candice's scientific investigations aim to disentangle the neural mechanisms involved in numerosity and time processing, to include how and when numerosity-time interactions occur.

Prior to attending George Mason, she taught Research Methods as a Lecturer of Psychology at Texas State University. She graduated cum laude with a B.A. in Psychological Science (Philosophy minor) from Northern Kentucky University, and an M.A. in Psychological Research from Texas State University.

Current Research

  • Eye-tracking to identify correlates related to the psychophysical effects of numerosity-time perception and interference.
  • fMRI to investigate time-space perception in discounting task.
  • Simultaneous TMS-EEG to measure natural frequencies in human cortical regions.
  • TMS and behavioral measures to investigate temporal reproduction differences in multimodal stimuli.

Selected Publications

Published as C. T. Stanfield and C. T. Stanfield-Wiswell

Stanfield-Wiswell, C. T.,  & Wiener, M. (Under Review). The effect of an unexpected modality on time reproduction: Clock speed or memory mixing?

Mioni, G., Shelp, A., Stanfield-Wiswell, C. T., Gladhill, K. A., Bader, F., & Wiener, M. (2020). Modulation of individual alpha frequency with tACS shifts time perception. Cerebral Cortex Communications1(1), tgaa064.

Stanfield-Wiswell, C. T., & Wiener, M. (2019). State-dependent differences in the frequency of TMS-evoked potentials between resting and active states. bioRxiv Preprint. doi:10.1101/614826v4

Trujillo, L. T., Stanfield, C. T., & Vela, R. D. (2017). The effect of electroencephalogram (EEG) reference choice on statistical measures of the complexity and integration of EEG signals. Frontiers of Neuroscience, 11, 1-22. doi: 10.3389/fnins/2017.004252

Stanfield, C. T. (2016). Context-dependent top-down influences supersede object location in visual attention (Unpublished master's thesis). Texas State University, San Marcos, TX.

Stanfield, C. T., Hogan, D., Goddard, P., Ginsburg, H. J., & Ogletree, S. M. (2015). The inexplicable sex differences: A proposed new paradigm of implicit cognitive systems. Journal of Social Sciences Research, 9, 1765-1779.

Mogull, S. A., & Stanfield, C. T. (2015, July). Current use of visuals in scientific communication. In Professional Communication Conference (IPCC), 2015 IEEE International (pp. 1-6). IEEE. doi: 10.1109/IPCC.2015.7235818

Courses Taught

PSYC 417 - Science of Well-Being

PSYC 415 - Psychological Factors in Aging

PSYC 317 - Cognitive Psychology

PSYC 301 - Research Methods in Psychology (lecture)

PSYC 301 - Research Methods in Psychology (lab)


Ph.D., Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience, George Mason University (in progress)

M.A., Psychological Research, Texas State University, 2016

B.A. (Cum Laude) Major in Psychological Science // Minor in Philosophy, Northern Kentucky University, 2013

Recent Presentations

Presentations while attending George Mason University

  • Neuroscience Conference (2018): Society for Neuroscience (SfN), San Deigo, California, USA
    • Poster presentation: TMS-evoked oscillations in human cortical circuits: A search for natural frequencies
  • Annual Neurosymposium (2018): Students in Neuroscience & Neuroscience Graduate Student Organization research conference, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia, USA
    • Poster presentation: TMS-evoked oscillations in human cortical circuits: A search for natural frequencies